O Uso de Simulação Baseada em Agentes no Estudo da Adaptação de Organizações no ambiente Internacional

Leonardo Yuji Tamura, Júlio César Bastos de Figueiredo

Abstract


O objetivo deste trabalho é aprofundar o entendimento do processo de adaptação de empresas no ambiente internacional. Para isto utilizou-se estudos que encararam a empresa como um sistema adaptativo complexo e utilizaram o modelo NK de Stuart Kauffman. O modelo NK, originalmente concebido na biologia, vem sendo aplicado por acadêmicos em trabalhos de estratégia e organizações desde 1997. Para possibilitar o uso deste modelo para o estudo de empresas multinacionais, o modelo foi estendido para abarcar conceitos específicos de negócios internacionais como, por exemplo, a obtenção de vantagem competitiva em diferentes países a partir da adaptação de caraterísticas internas da empresa ao ambiente local. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada no paradigma da modelagem e simulação baseada em agentes, segundo o qual as empresas foram modeladas como agentes autônomos que, por meio de um processo de adaptação buscam otimizar sua vantagem competitiva. Esta abordagem permite estudar propriedades emergentes do sistema a partir da interação e do comportamento dos agentes. Os resultados das simulações mostraram que a obtenção de vantagem competitiva a partir dos atributos organizacionais da empresa em diversos países possibilita o surgimento de novas formas organizacionais viáveis. Também se observou que uma forma organizacional que não propicia vantagem competitiva ótima em um país específico, ainda pode ser viável num contexto global. Outro resultado obtido foi a emergência da catástrofe da complexidade, que é a degradação da vantagem competitiva em decorrência da adição de restrições conflitantes. Tais restrições conflitantes são resultado da necessidade de otimizar simultaneamente a vantagem competitiva em diversos países de diversas formas diferentes devido à possibilidade de adaptação local.

Keywords


Estratégia Internacional; Adaptação; Modelo NK; Modelagem Baseada em Agentes

References


ANDERSON, P. Perspective: Complexity theory and organization science. Organization science, v. 10, n. 3, p. 216-232, 1999.

BARNEY, J. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of management, v. 17, n. 1, p. 99-120, 1991. ISSN 0149-2063.

BARNEY, J. B. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management science, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1231-1241, 1986. ISSN 0025-1909.

BARTLETT, C. A.; GHOSHAL, S. Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Taylor & Francis, 1999.

BERCHTOLD, S.; PIRCHER, R.; STADLER, C. Global integration versus local adaptation: a case study of Austrian MNCs in Eastern Europe. European Journal of International Management, v. 4, n. 5, p. 524-549, 2010.

BERRY, H.; GUILLÉN, M. F.; ZHOU, N. An institutional approach to cross-national distance. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 41, n. 9, p. 1460-1480, 2010. ISSN 0047-2506.

BIRKINSHAW, J.; PEDERSEN, T. Strategy and management in MNE subsidiaries. The Oxford handbook of international business, p. 380-401, 2001.

BOX, G. E.; DRAPER, N. R. Empirical model-building and response surfaces, 1987. Wiley. High Occupancy Vehicle, v. 4, p. 21, 1987.

CALDART, A. A.; RICART, J. E. Corporate strategy: an agent‐based approach. European Management Review, v. 4, n. 2, p. 107-120, 2007. ISSN 1740-4762.

CONTRACTOR, F. J. Is international business good for companies? The evolutionary or multi-stage theory of internationalization vs. the transaction cost perspective. Management International Review, v. 47, n. 3, p. 453-475, 2007.

CUERVO-CAZURRA, A. The multinationalization of developing country MNEs: The case of multilatinas. Journal of International Management, v. 14, n. 2, p. 138-154, 2008.

DATTA, D. K. et al. Choice of foreign market entry modes: Critical review and future directions. In: (Ed.). Managing Transnational Firms: Resources, Market Entry and Strategic Alliances: JAI, v.Volume 14, 2002. p.85-153.

DAVIS, J. P.; EISENHARDT, K. M.; BINGHAM, C. B. Complexity theory, market dynamism, and the strategy of simple rules. Proceedings of DRUID summer conference, 2007, Citeseer. p.18-20.

DUNNING, J. H.; LUNDAN, S. M. Institutions and the OLI paradigm of the multinational enterprise. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, v. 25, n. 4, p. 573-593, 2008.

EPSTEIN, J. M. Generative social science: Studies in agent-based computational modeling. Princeton University Press, 2006. ISBN 0691125473.

ETHIRAJ, S. K.; LEVINTHAL, D. Hoping for A to Z While Rewarding Only A: Complex Organizations and Multiple Goals. Organization Science, v. 20, n. 1, p. 4-21, 2009. ISSN 10477039.

GANCO, M.; HOETKER, G. NK modeling methodology in the strategy literature: Bounded search on a rugged landscape. Research methodology in strategy and management, v. 5, p. 237-268, 2009.

GAVETTI, G.; LEVINTHAL, D. A.; RIVKIN, J. W. Strategy making in novel and complex worlds: the power of analogy. Strategic Management Journal, v. 26, n. 8, p. 691-712, 2005. ISSN 1097-0266.

GHEMAWAT, P. Redefining global strategy. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, p. 40-64, 2007.

HEDSTRÖM, P.; MANZO, G. Recent Trends in Agent-based Computational Research A Brief Introduction. Sociological Methods & Research, v. 44, n. 2, p. 179-185, 2015. ISSN 0049-1241.

HENNART, J.-F. Transaction cost theory and international business. Journal of Retailing, v. 86, n. 3, p. 257-269, 2010. ISSN 0022-4359.

HILL, C. W.; HWANG, P.; KIM, W. C. An eclectic theory of the choice of international entry mode. Strategic management journal, v. 11, n. 2, p. 117-128, 1990. ISSN 1097-0266.

HOFSTEDE, G. Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. sage, 1980.

HOLLAND, J. H. Complex adaptive systems. Daedalus, p. 17-30, 1992. ISSN 0011-5266.

JENSEN, M. C. Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function. Journal of applied corporate finance, v. 14, n. 3, p. 8-21, 2001. ISSN 1745-6622.

JOHANSON, J.; VAHLNE, J.-E. The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of international business studies, v. 40, n. 9, p. 1411-1431, 2009.

KAUFFMAN, S. A. The Origins of Order: Self-organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 9780195079517.

______. At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. Oxford University Press, USA, 1995.

KIMURA, H.; PERERA, L. C. J.; LIMA, F. G. Teoria da complexidade e paisagens de adaptação: aplicações em estratégia. Revista de Administração, v. 45, n. 3, p. 238-254, 2010. ISSN 1984-6142.

KIMURA, H. et al. Paisagens de Kauffman e Posicionamento Estratégico sob Condições de Risco. IX SEMEAD. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo - USP 2006.

KNUDSEN, D. C.; FOTHERINGHAM, A. S. Matrix comparison, goodness-of-fit, and spatial interaction modeling. International Regional Science Review, v. 10, n. 2, p. 127-147, 1986. ISSN 0160-0176.

KOGUT, B.; SINGH, H. The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of international business studies, v. 19, n. 3, p. 411-432, 1988.

KOSTOVA, T.; ROTH, K.; DACIN, M. T. Institutional theory in the study of multinational corporations: A critique and new directions. Academy of Management Review, v. 33, n. 4, p. 994-1006, 2008.

LEVINTHAL, D. A. Adaptation on rugged landscapes. Management Science, v. 43, n. 7, p. 934-950, Jul 1997.

LOCKETT, A.; THOMPSON, S.; MORGENSTERN, U. The development of the resource‐based view of the firm: A critical appraisal. International Journal of Management Reviews, v. 11, n. 1, p. 9-28, 2009. ISSN 1468-2370.

MA, H. Competitive advantage and firm performance. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, v. 10, n. 2, p. 15-32, 2000. ISSN 1059-5422.

MACAL, C. M.; NORTH, M. J. Agent-based modeling and simulation. Winter simulation conference, 2009, Winter Simulation Conference. p.86-98.

MAGUIRE, S. et al. 1.5 Complexity Science and Organization Studies. The Sage handbook of organization studies, p. 165, 2006. ISSN 1446206890.

MAN JOE MA, A.; OSULA, B. The Tao of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Chinese Management Studies, v. 5, n. 1, p. 94-110, 2011. ISSN 1750-614X.

MATHEWS, J. A. Dragon multinationals: New players in 21st century globalization. Asia Pacific journal of management, v. 23, n. 1, p. 5-27, 2006.

MCKELVEY, B. Avoiding complexity catastrophe in coevolutionary pockets: Strategies for rugged landscapes. Organization Science, v. 10, n. 3, p. 294-321, 1999.

MILLER, J. H.; PAGE, S. E. Complex adaptive systems: An introduction to computational models of social life. Princeton university press, 2009. ISBN 1400835526.

PENG, M. W. The resource-based view and international business. Journal of Management, v. 27, n. 6, p. 803-829, 2001. ISSN 0149-2063.

PIDD, M. Modelagem empresarial: ferramentas para tomada de decisão. Bookman, 1996. ISBN 9788573073522.

______. Computer Simulation in Management Science. Wiley, 2006. ISBN 9780470092309.

PINA E CUNHA, M.; VIEIRA DA CUNHA, J.; WILDING, R. Towards a complexity theory of strategy. Management Decision, v. 44, n. 7, p. 839-850, 2006. ISSN 0025-1747.

PORTER, M.; SIGGELKOW, N. Contextuality within activity systems and sustainability of competitive advantage. The Academy of Management Perspectives, v. 22, n. 2, p. 34-56, 2008. ISSN 1558-9080.

PORTER, M. E. Towards a dynamic theory of strategy. Strategic management journal, v. 12, n. S2, p. 95-117, 1991. ISSN 1097-0266.

RIVKIN, J. W. Imitation of complex strategies. Management science, v. 46, n. 6, p. 824-844, 2000. ISSN 0025-1909.

______. Reproducing knowledge: Replication without imitation at moderate complexity. Organization Science, v. 12, n. 3, p. 274-293, 2001. ISSN 1047-7039.

RUGMAN, A. M.; VERBEKE, A. A note on the transnational solution and the transaction cost theory of multinational strategic management. Journal of international business studies, p. 761-771, 1992. ISSN 0047-2506.

RUGMAN, A. M.; VERBEKE, A.; NGUYEN, P. C. Q. T. Fifty years of international business theory and beyond. Management International Review, v. 51, n. 6, p. 755-786, 2011. ISSN 0938-8249.

SCHNEIDER, M.; SOMERS, M. Organizations as complex adaptive systems: Implications of complexity theory for leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly, v. 17, n. 4, p. 351-365, 2006. ISSN 1048-9843.

SETHI, D.; GUISINGER, S. Liability of foreignness to competitive advantage: How multinational enterprises cope with the international business environment. Journal of International Management, v. 8, n. 3, p. 223-240, 2002.

SIGGELKOW, N.; LEVINTHAL, D. A. Temporarily divide to conquer: Centralized, decentralized, and reintegrated organizational approaches to exploration and adaptation. Organization Science, v. 14, n. 6, p. 650-669, 2003. ISSN 1047-7039.

SIMON, H. A. Models of man; social and rational. 1957.

SORENSON, O.; BAUM, J. Interorganizational complexity and computation. Companion to organizations, p. 664-685, 2002.

TALLMAN, S. B.; YIP, G. S. Strategy and the multinational enterprise. The Oxford handbook of international business, p. 317-348, 2001.

TEECE, D. J. Reflections on the Hymer thesis and the multinational enterprise. International Business Review, v. 15, n. 2, p. 124-139, 2006.

VIDGEN, R.; PADGET, J. Sendero: An extended, agent-based implementation of Kauffman's NKCS model. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, v. 12, n. 4, p. 8, 2009.

WALL, F. Agent-based modeling in managerial science: an illustrative survey and study. Review of Managerial Science, p. 1-59, 2014.

WERNERFELT, B. A resource‐based view of the firm. Strategic management journal, v. 5, n. 2, p. 171-180, 1984. ISSN 1097-0266.

WRIGHT, S. The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding, and selection in evolution. na, 1932.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24023/FutureJournal/2175-5825/2016.v8i3.283

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Copyright (c) 2016 Future Studies Research Journal: Trends and Strategies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Future Stud. Res. J. e-ISSN: 2175-5825

Mailing Address: Avenida Drª Ruth Cardoso, 7221 - CEP 05425-070 - Pinheiros - São Paulo/SP - Brasil

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.